The Urinary Bladder and Urethrae

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The suprarenal glands | Main Anatomy Index | Female internal gentialia

Last updated 30 March 2006

The Urinary Bladder

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The Form of the Bladder

Click here for a schematic of the shape of the urinary bladder.


The Sides of the Bladder

  1. The base or fundus, which is related to the anterior vaginal wall (females) or the rectum, seminal vesicles and ductus deferens (males);
  2. The superior surface;
  3. And 2 inferolateral surfaces, which is separated from the pubis and puboprostatic ligament (male) or pubovesical ligament (female) by the retropubic fat pad.


The Angles of the Bladder

  1. The apex, which is continuous with the obliterated urachus (median umbilical ligament);
  2. The neck, which is the most inferior part and is related to the prostate (males) or superior pelvic fascia (females);
  3. And 2 lateral angles where the ureters enter the bladder.


The Ducts of the Bladder

  1. The urachus from the apex;
  2. The 2 ureters from the lateral angles;
  3. And the urethra, which pierces the neck of the bladder.
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The Bladder Bed

  1. On each side by the pubic bones;
  2. The levator ani muscles;
  3. The obturator internus muscle;
  4. And posterior by the rectum.


The Ligaments of the Bladder


The Interior of the Bladder

Click here for a diagram of the interior of the bladder.

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The Arterial Supply of the Urinary Bladder


The Venous Drainage of the Urinary Bladder


The Lymphatic Drainage of the Urinary Bladder


Innervation of the Urinary Bladder

The Efferent Fibres


The Afferent Fibres

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The Urethra

The Male Urethra


The Preprostatic Part


The Prostatic Part


The Membranous Part


The Spongiose Part


The Female Urethra


The Stages of Micturition

  1. Pubovaginalis (female) and levator prostatae (male), parts of the pubococcygeus muscle;
  2. The bladder neck drops;
  3. The downward movement initiates contraction of the detrusor and relaxation of the sphincter vesicae (parasympathetic reflex arcs);
  4. Somatic nerves (S2-4) relax the external urethral sphincters;
  5. The urine passes outwards.
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Michael Tam (c) 1998