The Gastrointestinal System I

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The respiratory system | Main Anatomy Index | Gastrointestinal system II

Last updated 30 March 2006

Gastrointestinal System I

  1. Tongue;
  2. Teeth;
  3. Salivary glands;
  4. Pancreas;
  5. Liver and
  6. Gallbladder
  1. Barrier function: barrier to the entry of noxious substances, antigens and pathogenic organisms.
  2. Immunologic functions: lymphatic tissue serves as the first line of defence.
  3. Secretory function: digestive enzymes, hydrochloric acid, mucin and antibodies.
  4. Absorptive function: absorption of metabolic substrates.
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The Oral Cavity


Oral Cavity Mucosa


Masticatory Mucosa


Lining Mucosa

  1. Stratum basale;
  2. Stratum spinosum;
  3. Stratum superficiale.


Specialised Mucosa

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The Tongue


Lingual Papillae


Filiform Papillae


Fungiform Papillae


Circumvallate Papillae


Foliate Papillae


Taste Buds

  1. Neuroepithelial cells;
  2. Supporting (sustentacular) cells;
  3. Basal cells.


Nerve Supply of the Tongue

  Anterior 2/3 Posterior 1/3
General Sensation CN V CN IX
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Teeth and Supporting Tissues




Enamel Formation (Amelogenesis)






Dentinal Pulp and Pulp Cavity


Alveolar Process and Alveolar Bone


Periodontal Ligament

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Salivary Glands

  1. Serous acini;
  2. Mucous acini;
  3. Mixed acini.


Serous Acini


Mucus Acini


Mixed Acini

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Salivary Ducts

  1. Intercalated ducts;
  2. Striated ducts;
  3. Excretory ducts.


Intercalated Ducts


Striated Ducts


Excretory Ducts

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Parotid Gland


Submandibular Gland


Sublingual Gland

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Michael Tam (c) 1998